IPC Section 279: Rash Driving Or Riding In Public



  1. Introduction 
  2. What Is IPC Section 279
  3. Elements Of IPC Section 279
  4. Penalties For Reckless Driving: Section 279 IPC
  5. Bail Under IPC Section 279
  6. Rules For Defence Under IPC Section 279
  7. Latest Judgments 
  8. Conclusion 


Rash driving is reckless and dangerous behaviour while operating a vehicle, such as speeding, racing, ignoring traffic signals, or driving under the influence. It’s a growing problem due to factors like more vehicles, distractions, time pressures, lack of safety education, and impaired driving. This behaviour poses serious risks to both drivers and other road users.

Section 279 of the Indian Penal Code (IPC) aims to safeguard public safety by discouraging reckless driving and promoting responsible behaviour on public roads, ultimately ensuring road safety for everyone.

What Is IPC Section 279

Section 279 of the Indian Penal Code, 1860, addresses “Rash Driving or Riding in Public.” This section makes it an offence to drive or ride a motor vehicle negligently or recklessly on public roads or ways, posing a risk to human life or causing injury to others. Offenders under this section can face legal consequences for their actions.

For instance, let’s consider a situation where a person named “X” is driving carelessly on a crowded road, showing no concern for the safety of others. X is speeding, changing lanes recklessly, and overtaking vehicles unsafely. Due to this behaviour, X causes a car accident that injures the occupants of another vehicle.

In this scenario, X has, among other things, violated Section 279 by driving recklessly. Consequently, X is subject to the corresponding punishment as per the law.

Elements Of IPC Section 279

To establish a crime under Section 279, three key elements must be proven by the prosecution: that the accused operated a vehicle on a public road or way, that this operation was reckless or negligent, and that it resulted in endangering human life or causing harm to another individual.

While the Indian Penal Code doesn’t specifically define “public way,” it typically encompasses roads, streets, highways, or pathways designated for public use.

In Section 279 of the IPC, “rash” and “negligent” describe the level of carelessness or recklessness during driving. “Rash” signifies a disregard for safety, while “negligent” implies a lack of reasonable care. Determining whether a person was negligent or rash depends on the specifics of each case. For instance, speeding or reckless overtaking can be considered rash driving, while negligence might involve not following traffic rules or driving while distracted.

To establish an offence under Section 279, it must be proven that the accused drove in a way that endangered human life or caused harm to another person. For instance, if someone is driving on the wrong side during a collision, they need to prove to the court that their driving wasn’t reckless or negligent on that side of the road.

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In the case of Balakrishnan Nair v. P. Vijayan (2020), it was highlighted that driving on a public road entails responsibility not just for one’s actions but also for the outcomes. Simply driving at a slow speed doesn’t guarantee non-reckless or non-negligent driving under Section 279 of the IPC. What matters is how the vehicle is operated, whether recklessly or negligently, and whether it endangers human life. Meeting all three criteria leads to the application of penalties outlined in Section 279.

Penalties For Reckless Driving: Section 279 IPC

Those convicted under Section 279 face potential penalties including up to six months of imprisonment, a fine of up to one thousand rupees, or both. The imprisonment could be either simple or rigorous, depending on the specifics of the case.

The severity of the punishment hinges on factors like the extent of harm, the level of recklessness, and the accused’s prior criminal record.

In the Subhash Chand v. State of Punjab (2019) case, the convict received rigorous imprisonment due to reckless driving. The Appellant was driving a truck negligently and at high speed on the wrong side of a busy road, causing a fatal accident involving an un-numbered Hero Moped driver. The Trial Court established his responsibility for the accident and his identity as the driver of the truck, as he surrendered voluntarily. Consequently, the accused was convicted under Sections 279 and 304A of the IPC and sentenced to six months of rigorous imprisonment, along with a Rs. 1000 fine and a default provision for the offence.

Bail Under IPC Section 279

Under Section 279, the offence is bailable, allowing arrested individuals to seek bail from either the investigation officer or the magistrate. Bail plays a crucial role in balancing an accused person’s right to liberty with the necessity of their presence during legal proceedings. As outlined in Section 436 of the CrPC, individuals charged with bailable offences have an undeniable right to be granted bail. Once the accused expresses their readiness to provide bail, it becomes the responsibility of the police officer or the court to release them on reasonable bail conditions.

In some cases, rather than accepting bail, the officer or court may discharge the accused upon execution of a bail bond. This method aims to prevent prolonged detention, safeguarding the accused’s right to liberty. However, it’s important to note that while bail is a right in bailable offences, it’s not absolute. If the accused violates bail conditions or the bond, they may be remanded to custody to ensure cooperation with legal proceedings and prevent misuse of freedom.

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Rules For Defence Under IPC Section 279

Facing criminal charges can have severe consequences, including potential imprisonment, hefty fines, and lasting social repercussions affecting one’s reputation and personal and professional life. The stigma and isolation resulting from criminal accusations can cause significant emotional distress. Legal proceedings following an arrest are often intricate, protracted, and emotionally taxing. Navigating this complex system can be overwhelming without expert guidance, highlighting the necessity of consulting an experienced criminal lawyer when confronted with criminal allegations.

A skilled criminal lawyer offers vital legal advice, explains rights, and strategizes for the best case outcome. They handle paperwork, negotiate deals, and present strong defences, easing the burden of navigating the legal system alone.

Latest Judgements 

In the case of Prathap Kumar G v. State of Karnataka & Ors (2022), the Karnataka High Court ruled that Section 279 of the IPC, which addresses acts likely to cause injury or harm to a person, does not apply to harm caused to pets. This decision clarifies that while the law aims to protect human lives and prevent harm, it does not explicitly cover injuries or death of animals.

In Thangasamy v. The State of Tamil Nadu (2019), the defendant was convicted of reckless and negligent driving, leading to the deaths of four individuals and injuries to three others. Despite the serious nature of the crimes, the trial court handed down a relatively lenient sentence of four months’ imprisonment for each count under Section 304A of the IPC. Additionally, the defendant was fined Rs. 100 for each count under Section 337 of the IPC and Rs. 200 under Section 279 of the IPC. This sentencing was considered light given the gravity of the offences, emphasising the importance of courts imposing suitable punishments proportionate to the harm caused by the defendant’s actions.

In the Dalbir Singh v. State of Haryana (2000) case, the Supreme Court emphasised the importance of deterrence when determining sentences for causing death due to reckless or negligent driving. The Court urged professional drivers to be acutely aware of the potential consequences of any momentary lapse or inattention while driving. They should not take risks assuming that their reckless driving won’t lead to an accident or that any resulting accident won’t result in loss of life. The Court’s message underscores the necessity for professional drivers to exercise extreme caution and responsibility to avoid harm or damage to themselves and others.

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In the Manish Jalan v. State of Karnataka (2008) case, the accused was charged with reckless and negligent driving but was found not to be under the influence of alcohol or any impairing substance. While the appellant’s conviction under sections 279 and 304A of the IPC was upheld, the Supreme Court reduced the actual imprisonment to the time already served and affirmed the fine. The Court believed that justice would be served by this reduced sentence. Additionally, to ensure fairness, the appellant was ordered to pay Rs. 1,00,000 in compensation to the deceased’s mother.

In the State of Himachal Pradesh v. Amar Nath (2001) case, the respondent was found guilty of reckless and negligent driving, resulting in a collision with a taxi driven by the complainant. The respondent was convicted under sections 279 and 337 of the IPC. As part of the sentence, he was ordered to pay a fine of Rs. 5,000 under Section 279, with a provision for one month of simple imprisonment in case of default in fine payment. Additionally, he was fined Rs. 5,000 under Section 337, also with a provision for one month of simple imprisonment in case of non-payment of the fine.

In Puttuswamy v. State of Karnataka (2008), the appellant’s reckless driving led to the tragic death of a seven-year-old girl, resulting in their conviction under Section 279 and Section 304A of the IPC. Despite agreements between the parties involved, the Supreme Court upheld the appellant’s conviction and increased the fine from Rs. 2,000 to Rs. 20,000, payable to the deceased girl’s parents. However, the appellant’s sentence was reduced to time served upon payment of the fine. This ruling underscores the court’s serious approach toward accidents causing loss of life and its commitment to holding responsible parties accountable for their actions.


Section 279 serves as a crucial deterrent against reckless driving, aiming to protect innocent lives on the roads. The Indian Government implemented this provision to ensure road safety across the country. It underscores the importance of cautious driving, emphasising that those who endanger others through reckless behaviour will face legal consequences. Offences under Section 279, along with other provisions like Section 337 and Section 338, can be charged if a driver’s negligence leads to an accident. Additionally, if the accident results in death, the driver may face charges under Section 304A.


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